Above: 3D reconstruction, lateral view, right skull. The temporal bone is highlighted in gray. The temporal bone is part of the skullbase and houses the organs of hearing (cochlea) and balance (saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals).
Above: 3D reconstruction, lateral view, right skull. The mastoid and ear canal labeled and help to define the basic surgical approach for chronic mastoiditis, cholesteatoma surgery, cochlear implant surgery, labyrinthectomy for severe Menieres disease, placement of an implantable hearing aid, or translabyrinthine approach to acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) resection.
In some types of ear surgery, the approach is through the ear canal (external auditory canal) and this is called an endaural approach. Laser stapedectomy for otosclerosis, middle ear reconstruction (ossiculoplasty), and basic repairs of the ear drum (tympanoplasty) can be performed using an endaural approach (through the ear canal).
In chronic ear surgery with a large eardrum defect (tympanic membrane perforation), damaged or absent ear bones (ossicles), cholesteatoma, and mastoid disease, a combined approach with both a tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy are performed.
Above: 3D reconstruction, lateral view, right skull. The boundaries of a basic canal wall up mastoidectomy are highlighted in green. Unless the surgery is being performed for a severely diseased ear, a large cholesteatoma, a cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF leak), or acoustic neuroma surgery, the posterior canal wall of the ear canal (external auditory canal) is general saved, hence the term "canal wall up" mastoidectomy
tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy surgery